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Origins of the English Bulldog

Due to a species selection in certain regions of the east there came to be a very large sized variety of dog, with a powerful head and a shorter snout in relation to that of the older wolf related dogs, the spitz.
The first examples of the Molossus were giant sized dogs,big boned and very strong.

Endowed with an incomparable force and unlimited value.

Appeared in various countries of the East. Around the VI century they were introduced to the European continent, including the British Isles by way of the skillful and learned merchant navigators who had established a prosperous network of commercial routes.
These Mastiff which were much sought after for their warlike ferocity and for their unmatched value, were crossbred with the local dogs and the British developed a molossus specie called the "PUGNACES BRITANNI" of extreme ferocity which were utilized by the habitants of the island to fight against the invading Romans.

Although at this point we are a long way from the actual British Bulldog, knowing the extraordinary feats that these fighting molossus substantiated we are able to understand how the temperament and history of the dog had been forged, that ended up becoming a symbol and pride of a nation.

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History Of The Breed

Bondogge or Bolddogge, later known as Banddogge, various words were used to name this breed before arriving at the name Bulldog.

"The time when screech owls cry and Banddogges howl and spirits walk and ghosts break up their graves." Was mentioned by William Shakespeare (1564-1616) in act 1, scene VI in the theatrical piece Henry VI.

But long before Shakespeare, in the reign of Henry II, some time during the year 1133, it was the custom to organize fights of dogs against bulls, and during the period of John (of no reign) the first registered notice in the Survey of Stamford that tells of how under the reign of John (of no regn), in the year 1209, the Lord of the city, Lord Stamford while strolling along the ramparts of his castle, saw two bulls fighting over the possession of a female. The dogs of a local butcher rushed headlong at the bulls, chasing them through the streets of the village and slaughtering them after a fierce fight.

Lord Stamford liked the spectacle so much that he donated the meadow where the fight began to the Butcher's Union, on the condition that, each year before the six weeks that precede Christmas, the Union performs a combat there, similar to that which he observed. Entitled BULL-BAITING, these combats between the butcher's dogs and the furious bulls became very popular and famous in England. At the height of the popularity of the sport, in which was wagered substantial sums of money had arduous defenders, as much within royalty as with the commoners. Arenas reserved for this spectacle spread throughout the land, of which traces exist in England until today.

Years of breeding for ferocity and courage rendered the bulldog an animal obsessive for fighting and blood. The bull was tied up by the horns with a 23 meter long rope to a stake at the center of the circular shaped arena and defended itself with it's horns trying to gore the abdomen of the dog, which in turn developed the tactic of crawling so as to protect itself from these attacks.


Many of the Bulldogs that were hit were thrown up high and, the Bullots (the owners of the dogs) cushioned the fall with their leather aprons (typical for butchers) or utilized bamboo rods to assist the dog roll safely to the ground, since even though wounded and in some cases with their intestines exposed, these dogs returned to the fight, after all their were wagers at stake. The Bulldogs were the most adequate dogs for this fighting since, apart from the tenacity and an extreme ferociousness, were the possessors of an incredible resistance to pain, and besides this their attack was directed at the snout of the bull, of which the dog seized hold of, until the beast, bloody and exhausted from the vain attempts to free itself from the dog, finally fell down subdued. One can observe in old drawings, that other longer snouted breeds of dog, such as the Spitz, were tested for this sport, demonstrating a far more inferior performance to that of the Bulldog, because while the Bulldog attacked the snout, the other dogs attacked the bull by the ears, and when the bulls turned their head making rotating movements, assailed these animals with their horns causing irreversible injuries (they were light and did not have the appearance of the molossus). The Bulldogs, during that period had a medium sized snout, but never a long snout, and exhibited a large sized head in virtue to their descent to the Asian Mastiff. In comparison with other breeds, the Bulldogs exhibited distinct and very particular characteristics. Their attack technique and fearlessness in the fights, made such that they earned dominion and fame in this setting, and became the absolute and exclusive breed for the practice of this sport, captivating illustrious personalities of English Royalty : The Kings: James I, Richard III and Charles I. Queen Isabel I who adored Bull Baiting, offered this spectacle as part of the entertainment in the receptions offered to the Ambassadors and Monarchs of neighboring kingdoms. In 1795 in the city of Liverpool a Bull Baiting spectacle took place in a dry dock and when the fight finished the water gates were opened causing all to be submerged: winners and losers.As the centuries passed by, the potential of the physique and temperament of these dogs were more and more sought after, so as to improve their fighting performance, which gave rise to a progressive physical mutation, that resulted in genetically fixing anomalies that made the dogs more adequate for Bull Baiting. Their paws became short to enable them to crawl better and therefore to more efficiently keep clear of the horns, an accentuated set back snout which provided for an increase in the prominence of the maxillaries, that resulted in a powerful jaw, a mechanism to bite of such force and power of which the actual dog was unaware of.

The folds in the wrinkles, around the nostrils, facilitated the drainage of blood from the bull, in such a way as not to hinder the respiration from obstruction. The dog was able to maintain hold of the bull for a long time and keep breathing without difficulty. Those most resistant to pain, and those most fearless and ferocious, were selectively separated for reproduction. Generations and generations were accentuating the profile of a dog that earned, in the Four Corners of the world, the fame as having an unequal ferocity. This selection allowed obtaining, throughout the centuries, a dog of exceptional physical and psychic characteristics. What were obtained were dogs of extraordinary force in relation to their size.

In the Bull Baiting that was seen over centuries, one dog at a time faced the bull and the wager was over how much time the dog took to take down the adversary. But this was being modified as time went by. If in centuries more distant, the dog should face and take down the adversary in the least possible time, later on, the number of Bulldogs in the fight were being increased, and the wagers, that always accompanied the Bull Baiting, were being made over which would be the first Bulldog that achieved success in biting the head of the bull and maintain a firm hold of it.

With the evolution of thought and refinement of civilization, the English became conscious of the unjustifiable butchery that this sport represented, of which was no longer admissible in those new times, passing as a representation of barbarism. After a lot of controversy and debates, the opposition became so strong that, in 1835 a new law was proclaimed in which all combat between animals was made prohibited.

The breed fell into the hands of bandits, lawless and bad intentioned individuals, who maintained these combats in secret. At the same time the authentic lovers and enthusiasts of this dog began to select the breed so as to save it from this sad situation.

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The breed was not remuneratively interesting, the love for it and this genetic patrimony which was going to be lost, running the risk of becoming extinct, motivated this reaction. The subsequent decades were utilized, now to foster the inverse course in the selection of temperament, one that was extremely dangerous and prepared for fighting should shed the characteristics of ferocity and stay free of the bad reputation of malignancy.

The true lovers of the breed initiated the patient work of separation for the selection of those dogs, which showed a balanced, docile and secure temperament. Through the selection of these specimens the perfection of the temperament was accomplished, which utilized the genetic heritage as a means to transmit and retain good temperament in their descendents therefore rendering the breed secure and adequate for civilized sociability.

In this effort, all aggressive or neurotic dogs were prevented from reproducing. These were systematically rejected in favor of those examples that securely showed a good temperament.

The temperament of the Bulldog was being gradually remolded, until the appearance of the current individual, propitious for living together within Society without offering the minimum possibility of risks. There were many years of dedication cascades sorb an admirable and idealistic work.

The first exposition of the dogs was in England in 1859


Philo Kuon

The English were the pioneers on the Kennel Club culture around the world and the Bulldog was the center of attentions during this historical period when, in 1864, so as to relate how would be the type of excellence in the Bulldog, SAMUEL WICKENS rewrote to first standard for a canine breed in the world. He used a pseudonym: PHILO-KUON since during that period it was considered shameful to write anything about dogs


In 1865, one year after the composition on PHILO-KUON , a group of Bulldog breeders founded the BULLDOG CLUB (the first Bulldog Club that preceded the current one).


Bulldogs of the end of century XIX


Bulldogs of the end of century XX

The first KENNEL CLUB IN THE WORLD, which exists until today, entitled THE KENNEL, was founded in 1873 and so, was 8 years after the first Club, dedicated to a canine breed.
THE BULLDOG CLUB (The second Bulldog Club) terminated activities and, in 1875 was founded THE BULLDOG CLUB INCORPORATED, which is in operation until the present day and coordinates activities regarding the breed in England, including management of the most important contests of the breed: THE BULLDOG INCORPORATED Show, where only Bulldogs that have Champion titles are allowed entrance.

Summary of the Chronology:

1835 - Extinction of BULL BAITINGS
1859 - First exposition of dogs in the world (England)
1864 -First composition of a standard in a canine breed in the World, the standard known as PHILO-KUON about the Bulldog (England)

First Club dedicated to a canine breed in the world:

1865

- THE BULLDOG CLUB (England)

First breed Club institution in the world:

1873 - THE KENNEL (England)
1875 - Third Bulldog Club: THE BULLDOG CLUB INC.(England)
26/08/1988 - The last revision of the Standard of the breed British Bulldog

In the U.S.A. the formation of a Bulldog Club in America was initially conceived in 1890 by HD KENDALL e LOWELL MASS. These American breeders were prominent citizens in those days, and among other things imported many of the best British Bulldogs to America to begin breeding there as many still do until today. These same men worked tirelessly to successfully promote specialized Show at the beginning of this century and were responsible for the popularization of the Bulldogs, arousing interest in the breed all over the country. In the beginning the STANDARD used was the BRITISH BULLDOG CLUB, but there was some dissatisfaction that it was not so concise or informative as it should be. They developed the AMERICAN STANDARD in 1894, firstly denominated: AMERICAN BRED-BULLDOG.

There arose much protest from the English in relation to the name given to a breed recognized as English. And discontentment from many American breeders with some of the items inserted in this standard.

After a long and meticulous work a new STANDARD was presented to the members for their consideration and approval and was voted to be used. This STANDARD dated at 1896 is still used today. It was adopted by the BULLDOG CLUB OF AMERICA and was approved by the AMERICAN KENNEL CLUB in 1896. It was revised on July 20, 1975.

The STANDARD is known in Brazil as; BULLDOG STANDARD (A.K.C)

THE STANDARDS of THE KENNEL (Official F.C.I.) and the AMERICAN KENNEL CLUB STANDARD (A.K.C.) follow until today with descriptive differences for what is considered the Bulldog of Excellence

All around the world sprouted BULLDOG CLUBS (Clubs specialized in the British Bulldog breed), these clubs utilized the STANDARD of THE KENNEL OFFICIAL STANDARD OF THE BRITISH BULLDOG recognized by F.C.I (Is the standard number 70 of the F.C.I.)

In Brazil, the Breeders GILMAR J.S. DE BARROS e LUÍZ ANDRÉ C. CAMARGO after idealizing the BULLDOG CLUB OF BRAZIL , began a national mobilization that culminated in the signing up of 29 Bulldog breeders, among these, all the expressive names in the panorama of Bulldog Breeding in the country.

On April 22, 2000 the foundation of the BULLDOG CLUB OF BRAZIL was consolidated. The 29 names that make up this history of national bulldog club can be found in this Site, in alphabetical order, in the
GALLERY OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE BULLDOG CLUB OF BRAZIL .

The world famous and original British Bulldog arrives at the beginning of the third millennium as a " CLASSIC ", a breed that will never fall out of fashion. A dog destined for a select group of people who possess the sensibility to appreciate a living being endowed with aesthetic qualities of the highest class.

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Bulldog and the Show

  • The first canine Show occurred on June 28 and 29, 1859 in Newcastle On Tyne (England) and were reserved only for the breeds of setter and pointer.

  • The first exposition that accepted the participation of Bulldogs was in Birmingham on December 3 and 4, 1860.

  • The first Bulldog that gave prestige to the breed and was the first to attain the title of Champion, was KING DICK, born in 1858 and owned by J. Lamphier winner of the exposition in Birmingham in1861.

  • CRIB, a descendant of KING DICK, was judged by an expert as being "CLOSE TO PERFECTION".

  • Other descendants of KING DICK that received distinction in these Show, were ROMANIE and MICHAEL. Both had a sad end to their lives. ROMANIE died of asphyxia in a train wagon on return from an exposition. MICHAEL, sold to France, arrived in Paris exactly on the day of the Blockade of the city and was killed during that tumultuous occasion.

  • Based on KING DICK and CRIB, with the help from other experts, Lamphier compiled the first Standard of the breed and was published in 1861. SAMUEL WICKENS rewrote another Standard which after obtaining the approval of the Bulldog Club, which was formed during that time, was published in 1864, under the pseudonym of PHILO-KUON (which means, "friend of the dog").

  • The first Bulldog written about in the book of origins was ADAMO, Born in 1863.

  • After the foundation of Bulldog Club Incorporated the Standard PHILO-KUON was carefully revised and published. It resisted unaltered until 1909.

When the Bulldog was recuperated from it's bloody past being converted into a dog of exposition, many people decided to become breeders, as well as badly prepared people and those wishing only to make an easy living (as still exists today). With the intention of producing examples more and more typical, limits of normality were crossed over, until was obtained a dog of hyper typical characteristics: huge heads, extremely short extremities and nonexistent nasal conduits. This ended up transforming into caricatures of itself and began presenting serious problems. One could observe animals so deformed that they were unable to walk around the block with their owners.

The authentic lovers of the breed once again rebelled against the tendency that prevailed, of the hyper typical dog. Between these two factions that formed, thankfully prevailed a middle ground. What was opted for was a breed endowed with a physical constitution without the excesses of neither type. This opinion movement obliged the breeders and judges to follow the type preferred by the public.

What is the Standard?

The Standard of a breed, is a detailed description of the physical characteristics and the constitution of the temperament that the dogs of this breed should show. Just as human beings have different personalities and do not homo-genetically share their convictions, and, since we know that each person has an individual conception as to what should be the ideal dog; in the case where people are permitted to freely arbitrate to breed dogs as they see fit, following their individual conception, what would occur would be a tendency to generate dogs that attended the demands of personal taste. The dogs that originate from this breeding present particularities that, over a certain period, would result in various aesthetic alterations of an evolutionary and accentuated nature. This would be the appearance of distinct types.

To conduct the breeding of dogs without following the parameters determined through the discipline of the Standard, giving rise to the appearance of hyper types and sub types, dogs affected by such alterations, that as a consequence, show individual differences in reference to weight, height, to temperament and to those details that form part of their original configuration. The Standard was conceived to describe, in detail, how is constituted the ideal example of the race. The Standard exists so as to orient not just the public that wishes to know more about the breed, but above all. To offer the judges conditions to make a qualified judgement and offer the breeder the necessary elements so as he can guide the breeding of the dog, being delimited through the indicators contained within this standardization.

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"The Myth "
The Force of a name - The Force of a past
 

By G. SANTANNA DE BARROS

The word MYTH is relative to fictitious or unreal elements. MYTH is a word that designates a cultural aspect that in reality is not concrete, it exists only in the imagination of superstitious and poorly informed people who, for some reason, prefer to believe and propagate a fantasy at the detriment of reason and good sense.

The ferocity of the Bulldog is constituted "TODAY" as a MYTH.

A The image and the name Bulldog, in reason of their past, exerts influence for Bull Baiting to continue to exist until today:

  • As part of history, (por parte) due to the breeders of the Bulldog.
  • As a mechanism to glorify the myth, due to the badly intentioned people that utilize the nonexistent Bull Baiting as an instrument to fabricate pseudo breeds that live the shadow of this MYTH.

To continue to talk of the Bulldogs associating their name with the word ferocity constitutes the practice of the MYTH, performed by individuals who live outside of reality and by elements that do not belong to the world of the pure breed of the BRITISH BULLDOG.
The British Bulldog is incontestable proof of the competence and ability that mankind possesses, when he wants to rescue a breed from an undignified condition, and promote it's recuperation to the point at which it becomes an example of conduct in social circles. Nowadays the Bulldog shows a brilliant charisma and amongst all other canine breeds is one of the most docile and affectionate.
When in the 19th century, a decree was proclaimed in Rome, prohibiting that Bulldogs transit through the streets, even when on the leash, the Bulldogs already were stigmatized by the reputation for ferocity (ferocity that had been, over the centuries, intentionally emphasized by man, through the selection of the breed, to condition the Bulldogs for the bloody sports in vogue). After the prohibition of Bull Baiting, the subsequent decades in which the Bulldogs remained in the company of delinquents, who, operating outside of the law, insisted in the clandestine promotion of the arenas, reinforced the stigma of the villain. This reputation was influenced also by the ferocious appearance peculiar to the breed.
The expansion of the British Empire, in the centuries XVII and XIX, internationalized the Bulldog, since many of them, in different periods, were imported from England by the subjects of the Empire, residents of the colonies spread throughout the planet.
Afterwards, in cartoons and in films, where a villainous dog was needed, no other fitted the role better than the Bulldog with his face of few friends.
The expression of an enraged dog, sponsored by these films and cartoons, traveled even further all over the world, fixing in the minds of people an unmistakable image.
There does not exist any other breed that at the international level, has reached such an elevated grade of notoriety.
If in the interior of central China, one of the habitants was shown a photograph or drawing of a Bulldog, certainly this Chinese villager would say that he knows that image. This does not signify that at some time he was personally in the presence of a Bulldog (how many people at some time during their existence, have not had the chance to see a Bulldog in the flesh?), but signifies that, at some moment in their lives, through some film, cartoon or drawing, they have seen the bizarre and extremely original image of an British Bulldog, (as strange as is unforgettable). It has been like this throughout the world, where it continues to be a breed known in the all planet.
The Bulldog continues to stamp, in a brilliant way, it's passage through civilization, adapting to the current times with uncommon performance; going through diverse transformations forced on by society.
The Bulldog of modern times is docile, endowed with a marvelous and completely trustworthy temperament. The dark period of the past is part of a rich history, and should be mentioned even if it is just to serve as an example, as to how much capacity mankind has, when they want to channel their forces, in the art of breeding dogs, in whichever direction for a creation, whether it be constructive or destructive. But this bloody past is, proudly, faced by the breeders of today as being a turned page in the history of the breed. Unfortunately one can observe in current times, that exist people that, in taking care of a belligerent character, strive in the formation of new breeds, of which the goal is to breed dogs that are able to reproduce the feats accomplished by the Bulldogs of the past or improperly exploit the image of the Bulldog.
Today, the Bulldog is living together with the "BULLDOG MYTH" (strongly present and associated to the image of the dog and the name it gained from past feats). This Bulldog MYTH, generated by this internationally recognized reputation, left a strong mark where ever it went, arousing the attention of these ever ready opportunists.
THE BULLDOG MYTH has been an enticement of questionable interests. Possibly for people who, after several attempts, failed in the art of breeding genuine Bulldogs, and who today dedicate themselves in mixing examples of the Bulldog breed with other dogs, with the objective of creating new pseudo breeds.
Each era that passes new breeds are invented (that in many cases does not fit in with the necessary requirements to achieve recognition as a pure canine breed). The breeding of hybrid specimens was fostered, and making use of fake resources, are annexing the name Bulldog together with other words so as to constitute a new name, of which is used to name a pseudo breed that lacks the recognition of the serious, ethical and responsible breeding.
It being in their interest to entice the attention of the consumer public to this work, stories were invented with depriving plots in credible arguments, based on personal interest. With the objective of promoting the dogs, these people try to deceive those listening by transferring the merits and the tradition of the history of the Bulldog to these specimens which, being from the modern era, are deprived of history or tradition.
This is what is denominated as "MYTH", that stamps notoriety on whatever other dog descendent of the Bulldog (when actually was descended).
Excesses are being committed over the most frivolous pretexts. One of the most common posted in practice is of the reversal of values, reaching the limit of the absurd by alleging that the British Bulldog is a descendant of these dogs (modern pseudo breeds) which had in their process of formation the actual blood of the Bulldog, dogs that that do not even have 30 years formation as a pseudo breed. People with shady; present these pseudo breeds to the public, even though not recognized by the principal and most important Kennel Institution (AKC) in the U.S.A., the same country in which they are being formed.
They try to encapsulate with the traditional history of the Bulldog, dogs completely nude of actual tradition, in the majority of cases are dogs with a past as modern as is obscure. We should applaud the initiatives and the serious work dedicated to the formation of new breeds, and this is not the question. We understand that a pseudo breed (today in formation), could become a recognized and prestigious breed in the future, since this line of thought transits through the logic of expectation. To understand that these dogs can inherit the inherent attributes of one of the breeds that is making part of this formation, is acceptable, is an identification of origin, though one should explore only the field of possibilities.
Articulating so that a pseudo breed gains notoriety in the shadow of a breed of unquestionable tradition, fame and prestige, could constitute in a stratagem (trick) not disapproved of. The bad faith is in the intention to take advantage of the misinformation of the public to try to confuse people, and, utilize false resources and create deceitful arguments that induce the supposed transference of the history of the English Bulldog over to these pseudo breeds with the objective to make possible the commercialization of them. Endowing them with magic and of mystery to make them more attractive. To establish the lie, the false information, much of the time is cited in a way intentionally guarded so as to distort the history.
One act of hypocrisy and carelessness. It is a procedure that we should condemn in that it concerns, above all, an act of bad faith.
In the United States Of America the following pseudo breeds are being detected in these circumstances :

  • OLDE ENGLISH BULDOGGE
  • BRITISH BULLDOG
  • SUSSEX BULLDOG
  • OLD THYME BULLDOG
  • A-LAP-AHA BLUE BLOOD BULLDOG
In Brazil, the following pseudo breed is being detected in this circumstance:
The advertisement says:

BULLDOG campeiro (original form of the fighter of Bulls) agility, robust, ugly face. Rescue and perfection of the breed. Puppies of Titan and Laka.

It is important to stress three points:

  1. THE AMERICAN KENNEL CLUB, Kennel Club of USA, does not recognize the purity of these breeds. They do not possess a pedigree of the AKC
  1. THE KENNEL (England), the F.C.I and the AKC permit for only two breeds the use of the Word BULLDOG constituting the name of a canine breed:
  2. THE ENGLISH BULLDOG and the FRENCH BULLDOG.

  3. All of the promoters of these pseudo breeds have as a common principal, attribute to these dogs the historical feats performed by the British Bulldog in the past. All allege that these dogs are the original fighting dogs of the arenas in past centuries (in temperament and body type). They try to justify this entire established folklore, with the most incoherent arguments, such as, for example: "That these dogs were confined all these years on American farms in the middle of the country (USA), where they lived and were selected to maintain the purity of the breed, and because of this, almost miraculously were preserved (Stock is kept on these farms to prevent any inbreeding that might devastate these bloodlines)". Some breeders of another pseudo breed are disclosing on a website about this breed here in Brazil, this same story, completely devoid of any credible foundation. They allege that this pseudo Breed is the former body of the fighting Bulldog. Also this pseudo breed has a narrow cranium box, incompatible with those that intend one day to apply to be considered as a ancient Bulldog.

To attribute these pseudo breeds with the feats that form part of the history of the British Bulldog demonstrates the power of influence that the BULLDOG MYTH radiates.
There is only one formula invented so as to enchant a potential buyer. It is the argument to falsely convince an interested party that they are about to acquire an animal of significant past and tradition, but, it is not so simple, since many other problems arise from this. People who purchase out of good faith, deceived by stories purposely falsified, consequently interpret that they are buying a pure breed animal and only discover they have been cheated when, deciding to show these dogs in Show are prevented from participating, later discover that they are dealing with a breed that is not recognized as pure.
The Word MYTH is related to fictitious and unreal things. THE MYTH is a word that designates a cultural aspect that is not concrete in reality, that exists only in the imagination of superstitious, or badly informed people who, for some reason, prefer to believe and promote fantasy in detriment of reason and good sense.
The ferocity of the Bulldog nowadays is constituted as a MYTH.
The image and the name of the Bulldog, in reason of the past, exerts influence that Bull Baiting continues to exist today:

  • As history, perpetrated by the breeders of the Bulldog

  • As a mechanism to glorify the MYTH, by way of badly intentioned people that utilize the nonexistent Bull Baiting as an instrument to manufacture pseudo breeds that live in the shadow of this MYTH.

To continue to speak of Bulldogs associating their name to the word ferocity constitutes in the practice of the MYTH, perpetrated by individuals who love outside of reality and by elements that do not belong to the world of the pure breed of the ENGLISH BULLDOG. The British Bulldog is proof (uncontestable) of the competence and ability that man possesses, when wishing to save a breed from an undignified condition, and promote their recuperation to the point where it was transformed into an example of deportment in the midst of society. Today the Bulldog expresses a brilliant charisma and amongst all canine breeds is one of the most docile and affectionate.

 

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THE BULLDOG OF TODAY


English Ch. Roseville Blaze
The British Bulldog is an old and majestic animal, very rare:

Should show an impression of determination, force, and activity. The temperament should be vivacious, fearless, loyal, dignified, courageous, ferocious appearance but endowed with an affectionate nature


It is one of the most tranquil and lazy dogs

To make a Bulldog lose patience one has to go to incredible extremes. This extremes.

could give rise to an act in defense of their young, where it could rush and could quite easily destroy an aggressor. Also, due to the past, it is not advised to train it for attack, the defensive instinct is a natural trait already brought from the past. Whatever the case it is a good idea to let it receive some defensive education, since the effect fostered by the ferocious air of the Bulldog is sufficient to make any badly intentioned individual desist in whatever he was thinking, if enter into their territory without permission.

With respect to their relations with other dogs, the opinions of those who know do not always coincide: Some say that it is a friendly dog, always willing to form relations with all other dogs it meets, and there are those who think of the dog being too individualistic and proud. The bitches are excellent mothers, and easily adopt with maternal love the offspring of other females. The puppies already demonstrate cleanliness ever since they were small. It is a dog that develops habits of hygiene, preferring to leave their dejects always in the same location, which makes them very apt for apartments

The breeders of the past turned him into a cruel and pitiless animal, ready to fasten their teeth whatever moved in front of their eyes. But the breeders that came afterwards, during the course of a few decades, converted the dog just like all the others, inclusively more docile and balanced than most of the other examples guard dogs. Currently it is a supremely loyal and phlegmatic dog, likes to play with children, endowed with enormous self-control and a good sense of humor, that shows all human beings a profound affection and great indulgence. This is what assures the breeders that have studied the breed. It has a scowling appearance, an intimidating and incorruptible air, but when we get to know the breed more deeply, we verify the existence of a heart of gold hidden within that mass of muscles.

* * * * *

They rarely bark, but when something occurs out of the ordinary (principally at night, that is if he is in a deep sleep) give the alarm showing their past as a guard dog.

Effectively speaking it is not a subservient dog, an admirer of humans, takes pleasure out of being in the company of their owner who they tenderly involve themselves with, while maintaining their independence. At play they are full of confidence and, conducting themselves without fear of mistakes.

If one tries to submit them to games that it does not care for, they find a way to turn the game into something tiresome for whoever proposed it, turning the situation around to their favor. Is an excellent companion, ideal for those who love originality, and functional beauty, the only criteria to judge in shows the beauty of a dog. The Bulldog has an excellent appetite and appreciates the leisurely life, when they want to sleep will ignore the calls of their owner, who will have to put up with their heavy snoring whilst asleep, which they do for many hours each day. One cannot deny that the "maximum aspiration of a Bulldog" is to be stretch out on a cushion contemplating the life that passes before their eyes or to be in a deep and recuperating asleep.

With all the love that one manages to get from a Bulldog, it is essential, right from the very first days, a coherent relationship should be developed, without highs and lows, with no margin for weakness or harsh behavior. If this does not occur the super intelligent Bulldog will quickly judge the owner as a very lazy, some one to be loved but not obeyed. Without any doubts what attracts most attention with this breed is their immense love for children. When together with them, even their facial expression changes to giving space for a gesture tranquilizing kindness. In the relationship between humans (whether they be adults or children) and the Bulldogs, the Bulldogs will never place itself in a dangerous situation and in this aspect are considered a splendid breed; for those that have or have at some time had, there exists a sincere and homogenous opinion from all with respect to this, that is:

"A LIFE WILL NEVER BE COMPLETE IF ONE HAS NEVER HAD A BULLDOG"

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Physical exercise and education

THE ENGLISH BULLDOG is fruit of a careful selection that transform this breed into a possessor of permanent anomalies

By being an extremely compact dog they have their limitations, never expect them to launch themselves into unbridled careers like those of the greyhound. They are considered the canine breed most compact in the world. Due to the fact they are so compact, exercises such as: running to accompany their owner become prohibited for this breed and definitively do not fit the profile as a breed for the sportsman.

Although they are not given to running, it is a breed that has an incredible pulling force, and that there be no problems with this force, it is better to accustom them ever since they were young, to walk with a guide; if it was to the contrary, over their entire lives they would drag their owners behind them, totally deaf to the most desperate of complaints.

The Bulldog is a dog given to routine, and because of this the puppy right from the beginning should be accustomed to their own space, where they can seek refuge if feeling insecure or wish to isolate them selves from the world. The location destined for this purpose should be chosen, adhering to the criteria of the house and the movement of the people in it as well as the dog (already imagining it in adult form), in a way that does not necessitate future changes to this location, which could confuse or destabilize the emotions of the dog thus giving rise to stress. The less one makes changes, the better for them, and therefore, this place should be defined, if possible in a definitive character, and so as to be successful with this choice, this location should not disturb the routine of the house as well as the domestic chores.

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HEALTH AND HYGENE

Reproduction:

The reproduction problems, encountered by breeders are plentiful and diverse. These problems which constitute a serious hindrance to the success of this creation and are a result of the particularities of the anatomy and the physiology of the breed, implanted through selection.

  • COUPLING IS DIFFICULT - Very heavy and compact, of a considerably lymphatic nature; the male encounters certain difficulty in a natural coupling. Almost always it is necessary measures have to be taken to maintain the partners joined and thus permit the coupling.

  • THE LEVEL (taxa) OF FECUNDIDADE IS WEAK - even though the period when the females are on heat can be noted, the ovulation date is extremely variable.

  • THE DELIVERY IS RARELY EASY AND NATURAL - It is notorious that we are dealing with a breed that presents reproductive problems; because the breed has the rear third of it's ample and potent body a narrow and fine pelvis. This is not all, no other breed has a head so big in proportion to its body, which contributes in making the delivery difficult, which, habitually is accomplished by cesarean section. The selection was based on the size of the head and the width of the shoulders, with little concern given the adaptation of the hips of the bitch; because, eventually occurs some kind of hormonal deficiency, the bitch does not enter in labor; because very frequently there exists one or various puppies with edema, or an abnormal contraction of the tromp uterine provokes the retention of the entire litter; because the muscular tone in often weak, corresponding to the tranquil character of a large part of the examples of this breed which impedes the expulsion of all of the puppies, bringing about the urgency for a cesarean section, performed under difficult conditions on an already extremely tired bitch. Research indicates a very low percentage of Bulldog bitches that give birth normally to an entire litter, as is the case with other breeds. Many puppies are lost in fetal suffering because some people are not aware of the statistics or prefer not to consider them. In other occasions some professionals that offer services to the owner of the bitch, by not knowing about the problems that occur with this breed, or by not being convinced when alerted about these problems, induce the owner to believe in the possibility of a successful natural delivery.

 

Hygene:

The eyes and mouth should be the target of attention, the eyes should be reviewed with attention to avoid infections. The skin remains protected when complements of the vitamins A and H are integrated into the diet. The facial folds, the skin between the toes, and the areas that could remain exposed to a prolonged friction require a therapy based on a careful cleansing in these zones and afterwards, if necessary, a medication based on crèmes with cortisone and antibiotics. After the bath it is fundamental that the dog, after being dried with a towel, is completely dried with a hair dryer, the crevices of the skin folds (wrinkles) on the face should be dried without causing friction to the skin or fur, lightly pressing the towel, with care and attention. It should be brushed at least twice a week.

 

Nourishment:

It is an animal endowed with a good appetite the daily Kcal necessities vary between 850 and 950. Nourishment excesses will result in a state of obesity. The continued nourishment with industrial dog ration which contains soy bran is harmful. The Bulldog is characterized by an excessive activity of the Thyroid Glands.
A balanced and varied diet will offer a better quality of life and a longer lifespan of the dog. Avoid exclusively feeding dog ration for extremely long periods. Introduce periodically, in the diet of the dog, beef visceras boiled with vegetables and rice which allows a variation of the menu that impedes the occurrence of infections of a nutritional origin such as the type "Black Tongue".

 

Health:

We should remember that The Bulldog could show a predisposition for congenital cardiopatia consistent in the estones da valvula pulmonar. This poor formation affects the right part of the heart.
This could cause a defective growth of the dog with little resistance and with the possibility of grave complications, even death, in an adult animal. They show an incompatibility with elevated temperatures, above 37 degrees celcius, and should have conditions of access and rest in cool and ventilated locations during the summer season, and the hot days of the year. They equalize their body temperature by themselves in the water bowl and placing their abdomen in contact with cold surfaces such as vitrificado floors for example. The thermal decompensation of the Bulldog could lead to death if they are overwhelmed by what is known as: HEAT STROKE which occurs if they are left in cars with the windows up and parked in the sun; or when they are excited taken for a walk during the hottest hours of the day. Ideally one should take then for walks during the first hours of the day or at night.
When arriving from the stroll the water bowl should be withdrawn, so as to wait for their internal temperature to return to normal (offer water during the 30 minutes after the end of the exercise)
.In order for them to have a healthy and longest possible life, quality of life is necessary, encompassing a balanced diet and, above all human company. They should be integrated into the family environment so as to be happy and correspond all the expectations that are hoped for. If they are confined uninterruptedly in kennels they become depressed and develop stress and consequently emotionally based dermatitis.

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TECHNICAL FORM:

Standard summary:

    1. WEIGHT
      Adult Male 25 Kg.
    2. Adult Female 22,7 Kg.

    1. HEAD
      Cranium with circumference equal the height, in cross (cerelha), of each example.
    1. EYES
      Localization relatively low, at the level of the nose, alot of space between them and the ears; their external angle is at the same line as the cheeks. Rounded, of medium size, not deep set, not prominent, many are dark, so much so that could seem to be black, sclerosis should not be visible.
    1. EARS
      They are inserted high on the head, fine and of small dimension, with the upper edge folded in such a way that one can see a good part of the interior of the lobe.
    1. NECK
      Very short, and quite curved on the upper part, with an abundant lateral papada which, begins at the lower jaw and extends until the chest.
    1. FORWARD EXTREMITIES
      Shoulders that are large, oblique and deep, very muscular. Very strong paws, a little shorter in comparison to the hind ones and widely spaced. Elbows low and well separated from the thorax.
    1. BODY
      Very ample chest, convex, which extends from the top of the shoulders until the point of the sternum and descends between the forward extremities. Well shaped thorax with ribs that can be clearly seen. Raised abdomen that does not drop.
    1. POSTERIOR EXTREMITIES
      Very large and muscular paws slightly curved and short metatarsus.
    1. TAIL
      Of low insertion, quite short, dirigida at the base and withdrawn at the tip, should be carried low.
    1. FUR
      Fine, short, compact and soft. With respect to the color, the Bulldog could be of a continuous tonality (allowing for all the variations, from lion colored or tiger colored yellow, white whether it be solid or mixed, the black mask above the snout and around the eyes is extremely desirable).

 

Considerations about the standard of the breed:

  • The head should have a cranium wider than is longer.
  • The cheeks should be quite round, nasal radius or tibia almost non existent, sunken in a marked way, and the extremely short snout should be as wide as possible with the chin being quite evident.
  • The forward extremities, sustain the thorax with a well rounded perimeter.
  • The upper line, originating from a gap situated behind the shoulders, rises until the rump forming a profile defined as "dorsal of a carp".
  • The rump is set high and quite rigid, of which makes the Bulldog walk in a way very typical defined as "rolling".
  • The solid white color is the third color in order of preference, the preferred color and considered the most traditional and representative of the breed is the blended red with white.

 

General characteristics:

  • CHARACTER - Affectionate, loyal, with a strong personality and very intelligent. In certain occasions, independent and stubborn.
  • QUALITIES - Very clean and their fur does not require much particular care.
  • SPECIAL CARE - None special, only do not confine for a long time away from the people of the house, so as not to become depressed since they find it necessary to be in the company of humans. It is important to remember that they do not tolerate excess heat or excessively long walks.
  • LIFESPAN - Estimated at 10 to 12 years. In order for them to have a healthy and longest possible life, quality of life is necessary, encompassing a balanced diet and, above all human company. They should be integrated into the family environment so as to be happy and correspond all the expectations that are hoped for

 

Is adequate for:

  • Families with children above 6 years of age.
  • Families with special tastes.
  • People who live alone (retired) or married without children.
  • Individualistic people capable of accepting that a dog also possesses it's own personality.
  • All those that have a strong personality and are gifted in giving commands.

 

Not adequate for:

  • Sportspeople who want a dog for intense exercise practice.
  • Individuals who want a dog that is obedient to the maximum (extremely subservient).
  • Novices, who are not aware of canine psychology. In case they adopt a Bulldog they should first read books about the subject.
  • Personalities totally complacent or feeble.

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